Simon Kitson's

 

 

VICHY WEB

 

 

MEMORY AND THE SECOND WORLD WAR IN FRANCE

 

This page presents some information on this subject. It is currently divided into the following sections, (although there are plans to develop it further over time):

 

DOCUMENTATION

Les Français et leur histoire

Song: Motivés-Le Chant des Partisans

Song: Spook & the Guay- Anti-Racist Soldiers

COMMENTS & DEBATES

Henry Rousso on Collaboration & Memory

Robert Gildea on the gaullist creation of memory in 1945

Maurice Delarue, "La France n'a pas à rougir de ses années noires"

Nick Atkin on the 'Vichy syndrome'

John Sweets writing on Robert Paxton

Richard Vinen on the changing use of words describing occupation experience

Oradour-sur-Glane

 

CHRONOLOGY OF MEMORY

 

BIBLIOGRAPHY

 

LINKS

 

Any suggestions on improvements or supplements to this page will be gratefully received at s.k.kitson@bham.ac.uk

 

DOCUMENTATION

Opinion Poll

Les Français et leur histoire

The following opinion poll was conducted by the Louis-Harris-France institute using a sample of 1000 people- based on a method of quotas- representative of the French population aged above 18 years old. The poll was conducted on 8 and 9 January 1987. 

The percentage totals are greater than 100 because those questioned could give more than one response. 

No answers were suggested by the pollsters. 

Taken from Jean-Pierre Rioux, 'Les Français et leur histoire', L'Histoire, n° 100, May 1987, p 72. The article also features a commentary on this opinion poll. 

Question: quel sont, à vos yeux, les trois événements du XXe siècle, heureux ou malheureux, qui furent les plus important pour la France? 

La guerre 39-45                                    39%

La guerre 14-18                                    30%

Mai 68                                                      17%

Le Chômage                                          11%

La recherche médicale                          9%

Mai-81                                                         9%

Le terrorisme                                            9%

La conquête spatiale                             8%

La guerre d'Algérie                                 7%

Le Front Populaire                                  6%

Le progrès social                                    6%

divers autres                                          61%

ne se prononcent pas                         12%

 

 

 

 

MOTIVES

Motivés-Le Chant des Partisans

This song was a huge hit for the Toulouse group Les Motivés which was a loose grouping of local musicians, including a number of second generation immigrants, including members of Zebda (famous for their hit 'tomber la chemise'). The group  rework the Resistance song Le Chant des Partisans using it to incite left wing activism. 
Spécialement dédicacé à ceux qui sont motivés 

Spécialement dédicacé à ceux qui ont résisté par le passé 

 

Ami entends tu le vol noir des corbeaux sur nos plaines 

Ami entends tu les cris sourds du pays qu'on enchaîne 

Ohé, partisans ouvriers et paysans c'est l'alarme 

Ce soir l'ennemi connaîtra le prix du sang et des larmes 

 

Motivés, motivés 

Il faut rester motivés ! 

Motivés, motivés 

Il faut se motiver ! 

Motivés, motivés 

Soyons motivés ! 

Motivés, motivés 

Motivés, motivés ! 

 

C'est nous qui brisons les barreaux des prisons pour nos frères

La haine à nos trousses et la faim qui nous pousse, la misère 

Il est des pays où les gens au creux des lits font des rêves 

Chantez compagnons, dans la nuit la liberté vous écoute 

 

Motivés, motivés 

Il faut rester motivés ! 

Motivés, motivés 

Il faut se motiver ! 

Motivés, motivés 

Soyons motivés ! 

Motivés, motivés 

 Motivés, motivés ! 

 

Ici chacun sait ce qu'il veut, ce qu'il fait quand il passe 

Ami si tu tombes un ami sort de l'ombre à ta place 

Ohé, partisans ouvriers et paysans c'est l'alarme 

Ce soir l'ennemi connaîtra le prix du sang et des larmes

 

Motivés, motivés 

Il faut rester motivés ! 

Motivés, motivés 

Il faut se motiver ! 

Motivés, motivés 

Soyons motivés ! 

Motivés, motivés 

 Motivés, motivés ! 

 

On va rester motivé pour le face à face 

On va rester motivé quand on les aura en face 

On va rester motivé, on veut que ça se sache 

On va rester motivé... 

On va rester motivé pour la lutte des classes 

On va rester motivé contre les dégueulasses 

Motivés, motivés...

 

For further information about Les Motivés/ Zebda

http://perso.club-internet.fr/cmecanik/chronik/motives.html

http://www.ac-creteil.fr/clgpicassomontferm/journal/camille1.htm

 

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SPOOK AND THE GUAY

ANTI-RACIST SOLDIERS

 

The lyrics below are from the 1998 song 'Anti-Racist Soldiers' by the Toulouse based Rock/Reggae band Spook and the Guay. Although it is a clear attack on the Front National it also makes numerous references back to the Second World War and France's supposed failure to take in the lessons of her past. 
Depuis des années déjà le poison est entré
Dans les cités dortoirs comme dans les beaux quartiers
Trop de meetings politiques deviennent des appels au meurtre
De nouvelles chemises brunes se déplacent en meute
J'en ai des sueurs froides, ils ont crée un parti
politique infernal qui se fait beaucoup d'amis
Je vis dans un pays qui n'a plus de mémoire
et qui jour après jour renie son histoire

Tu te prends pour un samouraï, pour un croisé en guerre
Avec ta batte de baseball, et ton pitbull de merde
Ah tu me fous la nausée, quand j'aperçois ton blair
Tes yeux emplis de néant et ta haine au goût de bière
Au nom d'la race, tu vomis une théorie
Aussi ignoble qu'erronée petit Goebbels en treillis
De haine et frustration tu n'es qu'un ramassis
Fasciste de base, TU ES MON PIRE ENNEMI
Au nom de leurs idées combien de bavures policières
Devront subir tous ceux qui ne répondent pas aux critères
Combien de colleurs d'affiches pourront encore de sang-froid
Abattre un gosse qui s'enfuyait déjà
Ne parlons même pas des 20% d'électeurs
Qui légalement déterrent Hitler de son bunker
Et qui par leur vote et leur ignorance
Sur un socle de boue bâtissent la nouvelle France
 

Alors Ali l'algérien je suis de son côté
Hilario le portugais je suis de son côté
Fatima la marocaine je suis de son côté
Alou le sénégalais je suis de son côté

Le RMIste, le poète je suis de leur côté

Le juif errant, le communiste je suis de leur côté

L'anarchiste, l'immigré je suis de leur côté

Le poivrot, le séropo je suis de leur côté

REFRAIN:
Anti-Racist soldiers we are the freedom fighters
Anti-Racist soldiers we gonna chase them all

Le triste constat du trépas du souvenir du passé
Laisse à penser que l'horreur n'est pas encore enterrée
Qu'les leçons d'histoire apprises au lycée
Certains les révisent du fond d'un asile d'aliénés
Au nom d'la race, dont nous ne faisons pas partie
Celles des odieux des méchants des fachos et des aigris
Au nom de leurs idées tordues combien de passages à tabac
Devront nous encore constater dans les commissariats
Combien de misères et d'humiliations
Pour tous ceux qui n'ont pas les yeux bleus et les cheveux blonds.
Moi je comprends que certains potes aient envie de péter un plomb
D'aller dans la rue avec un gun et de faire un carton
Ceci étant dit et cette fois sans exagérer
Comment admettre que parce que ta peau est colorée
Que ce soit pour être embauché ou pour aller danser
La direction se réserve le droit d'entrée

 

Alors Ali l'algérien je suis de son côté
Hilario le portugais je suis de son côté
Fatima la marocaine je suis de son côté
Alou le sénégalais je suis de son côté

Le RMIste, le poète je suis de leur côté

Le juif errant, le communiste je suis de leur côté

L'anarchiste, l'immigré je suis de leur côté

Le poivrot, le séropo je suis de leur côté

REFRAIN:
Anti-Racist soldiers we are the freedom fighters
Anti-Racist soldiers we gonna chase them all

Et comme voilà revenus les vilains dans nos villes gorgés de bile,
emplis de venin qui s'en prennent aux fragiles d'une manière certes très habile
Il est donc temps maintenant que tous les gens qui sont là comprennent que l'unité qu'il nous faut opposer est la seule solution pour les raisonner, les calmer, les bâcher, les jeter.
NOUS N'EN VOULONS PAS...
Non pas de rats, pas de tarbas, ils ne passeront pas!!!!
Et comme on vous l'a dit et redit déjà maintes fois répété depuis des années le poison est entré dans les cités dortoirs, les campagnes et les beaux quartiers, en France et en Provence, donc évidemment celle-ci est dédicacée:
A tous les jaunes, aux rebeus, aux renois, aux pédés, à tous les blondinets, aux feujs et aux expulsés, aux ethnies exterminées, aux femmes brutalisées, aux squatters, aux sans-logis, à tous les déracinés...

A tous les jaunes, aux rebeus, aux renois, aux pédés, à tous les blondinets, aux feujs et aux expulsés, aux ethnies exterminées, aux femmes brutalisées, aux squatters, aux sans-logis, à tous les déracinés...

REFRAIN:
Anti-Racist soldiers we are the freedom fighters
Anti-Racist soldiers we gonna chase them all

Please just kill them, we're going to kill them, better smash them now
 
 

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COMMENTS & DEBATES

Henry Rousso on Collaboration & Memory

Extract from Henry Rousso, 'Collaborer', L'Histoire, No 80, 1985, p 61

(...)

Reste un phénomène social et politique d'importance, qui a touché l'ensemble de l'Europe occupée mais qui a trouvé en France l'une de ses expressions les plus achevées: la France a pu fournir à l'Allemagne près du tiers des surplus importés de toute l'Europe et la meilleure main-d'oeuvre, elle a contribué à accroitre sa sécurité relative sur le front occidental jusqu'en 1942. En définitive la blessure la plus profonde est d'ordre interne et touche directement la mémoire. La collaboration, toutes tendances confondues et malgré son caractère minoritaire, a creusé un fossé profond en rouvrant les failles anciennes et en créant de nouvelles. Car il y a bien, là aussi, une question en suspens: si l'on admet que le pays fut peu sensible à la Collaboration, comment expliquer que cette dernière, plus que l'occupation en elle-même, ait engendré un traumatisme aussi aigu et surtout aussi durable? Pourquoi les Français ont-ils refoulé un crime qu'ils n'auraient pas commis? 

 

Robert Gildea on the gaullist creation of memory in 1945

Robert GILDEA, France since 1945, OUP, Oxford, 1996, p 61 (in chapter 3 'Echoes of the occupation)

To restore the continuity of French history was as important as to restore the unity of the nation. This could be achieved by presenting the wartime experience in a way best calculated to flatter de Gaulle, the army, and the nation as a whole. To this end, commemoration of the war began promptly in 1945. The anniversary of de Gaulle's appeal from London, on 18 June 1945, was celebrated by a show of force by the Free French, including tanks and planes, eclipsing the Khaki of the FFIs, to privilege the contribution of regular soldiers at the expense of that of the clandestine Resistance. The military parade of 14 July 1945 was designed to mark the reunion of army and nation, and to outshine the revolutionary march organised by the Communists in the afternoon. The armistice commemoration of 11 November 1945 underlined de Gaulle's message that the defeat of Germany in 1945 marked the end of a Thirty Years War, to marginalize the defeat of 1940 and the occupation as blips in French history, and to equate the victory of 1945 with that of 1918. Descending the Champs-Elysées to lay a wreath at the statue of Clemenceau and a palm at that of Foch, de Gaulle sought to demonstrate a continuity between the victorious leaders of 1918 and himself as leader of the Free French, and to suggest that the Republic had never died between 1940 and 1944. In a much longer historical perspective 8 May, date of the German surrender in 1945, celebrated for the first time as a public holiday in 1946 was honoured by a visit by de Gaulle to the grave of Clemenceau in the Vendée, and happily coincided with the festival of Joan of Arc, who had expelled the invader from France so many centuries before.

 

 

Extract from Maurice Delarue, "La France n'a pas à rougir de ses années noires", Libération, 03/11/97
http://www.liberation.com/quotidien/debats/novembre97/delarue0311.html
Background: In this article Delarue paints a much more positive view of France during the Second World war than is generally accepted (for the whole article ). He points out that France and Britain were the only two countries to engage in war against Nazi Germany without being forced to. The USA and the USSR he reminds us were dragged into the war against their will; other countries in Europe were objective allies of Hitler or remained neutral. The historian could oppose this view by saying that France and Britain were themselves very slow to stand up to Hitler and that when they did so it was not a war against Nazism but a war based on collective security and the realisation that in the long-term Hitler would turn his attention to the west. The author, who was a 20 year old journalist in 1939, rightly reminds us that the 92 000 Frenchmen killed in the battle of France was equivalent to the worst weeks of fighting in the First World War. More contestable is his citing of the figure of 370 000 civilian casualties in France- he seems to overlook that these figures include foreign Jews who were often victims of the French themselves. He rightly points out that the Resistance was massively supported by the population and that collaborators were detested by the population, however he could also mention that much of the population despite being pro-Allied was passive and that economic collaboration, constrained though it may have been, was something that most of the population were involved in. The extract below speaks for itself and concerns anti-Semitic practice. Although many historians recognise how vital the help of the population was to saving Jews in France, they also remind us that when the initial anti-Semitic policies were being introduced in France few protested. 
(....)

L'antisémitisme de Vichy et le concours de sa police aux déportations des juifs sont inexcusables, mais cette politique n'avait aucun appui populaire: «En fait, il y a eu très peu de lettres de dénonciation. Les trois quarts des juifs de France ont pu échapper à la Gestapo et à la police de Vichy parce qu'ils ont été cachés et aidés par un grand nombre de gens», affirme Serge Klarsfeld (Marianne du 8 septembre 1997). Un universitaire israélien, Asher Cohen, expose la même thèse dans un gros ouvrage très précisément documenté: Persécutions et sauvetages (Le Cerf, 1993). La France fut le pays occupé d'Europe occidentale où le plus grand nombre de juifs furent sauvés: un quart moururent en déportation contre près de la moitié en Belgique et les trois quarts aux Pays-Bas. En 1945, les survivants juifs étaient les derniers à réclamer une distinction raciale, l'eût-on dite «positive».

(....)

 

Nick Atkin on the 'Vichy syndrome'

Source: Nicholas Atkin, The French at War, 1934-44, Longman, London, 2001, p 98

There are signs that France is finally coming to terms with this most painful of episodes. Those who lived through the Occupation are now few on the ground; the opening of state archives has left few skeletons in the cupboard; and the extensive research into the war years has revealed the true horrors of Vichy's complicity in the murder of Jews and other minorities. That public attention is also shifting to the Algerian war, another painful memory in the French national consciousness, is perhaps further evidence that the syndrome is becoming less painful. 

Nonetheless, there must remain doubts whether the French state or the French public will ever truly be at ease with the Occupation, in particular the persecution of Jews. It is highly significant that when in 1992 Mitterrand officially declared 16 July a day of remembrance for the Vél d'Hiv round-ups, he refused to accept blame for the persecutions on behalf of the French state, deploying the Gaullist argument that Vichy had been an illegal regime, an aberration in French history, when of course it had been nothing of the sort. It is also significant that those who have been put on trial in recent years for 'crimes against humanity' have only been the small fry. After 1944-46, the bigger fish largely evaded justice. The existence of Le Pen's Front National is evidence that the extreme-right has  not disappeared, and as Europe moves unsteadily towards greater integration it is certain that nationalist and xenophobic voices will become louder. Just as German schoolchildren are still required to visit the extermination camps, maybe there is a need that the French should revisit wartime persecution and should not attempt a cure for the syndrome. Such a statement may seem patronising, especially coming from a British author. Yet it is to be wondered whether the British would have behaved any differently had the Germans crossed the channel. The experience of the Channel Islands under Occupation, recently chronicled by Madeleine Bunting, suggests not (Bunting, 1995). It is Britain's good fortune that this question can never be properly answered. 

 

 

John Sweets writing on Robert Paxton

John F Sweets, 'Chaque livre un événement', in Sarah Fishman (et al- eds), France at War, pp 31-32

Paying tribute to the role of Robert Owen Paxton in France, Sweets highlights below an experience which is common to many post-Paxton Anglo-Saxon historians of Vichy France: Paxton's considerable influence on the historiography of France has had huge effect on the way Anglo-Saxon scholars of the period are welcomed (or in rarer cases shunned) in France. 

Taking the liberty of concluding with a personal anecdote, I might add that Paxton's reputation is even operative in France in the world of advertising and promotion.

When my book, Choices in Vichy France, was translated into French in 1996, my publisher, obviously thinking that this would help sales, distributed it to bookstores around the country with a flyer stating that I was a 'disciple of the historian Paxton'. For the television program, Le cercle de minuit, the hostess, Laure Adler, introduced me as 'a disciple of the great American historian Robert Paxton', and in several newspaper articles and radio broadcasts, I was repeatedly labeled either as a student or disciple of Professor Paxton. Of all French commentators, only Jean-Pierre Rioux, in a review of my book, entitled 'Clermont with neither sorrow nor pity', noted that I was the anti-Ophuls and even, in passing, the anti-Paxton'. Discussing these developments over supper one fall evening with my French colleague, François Marcot, I pondered whether or not to take advantage of an upcoming appearance to clarify that I had studied with Joel Colton rather than Professor Paxton, and that, as Rioux had detected, I was not entirely a 'disciple' of the latter. To which François responded, 'You know, my friend, all of us, French or Americans, who have done research since the 1970's on the Vichy period, even those of us who have differed with his interpretation on certain issues are all disciples of Robert Paxton'. Certainly this sentiment, no doubt shared by all scholars in the field, bespeaks an achievement rarely attained in our profession, and much to be admired.

 

Richard Vinen on the changing use of words describing occupation experience

Extract from Richard Vinen, The Unfree French, Life under the Occupation, Penguin, 2006, p 6. 

Such words do not have a fixed and uncontested sense. Everyone agreed that the black market was central to survival in occupied France but almost no one used it with reference to their own informal economic dealings. Some words that people used to describe their circumstances have simply disappeared from the language. The term J3 (meaning the ration category assigned to those between the ages of three and eighteen) was quite widely used to describe a particular generation in the immediate post-war period but it has now been almost forgotten. When one author republished his autobiographical account of life as a ‘J3’ he changed the title as he thought it would no longer mean anything to contemporary readers. Service du Travail Obligatoire, or STO, was a phrase widely used during and immediately after the war but it was often inaccurately applied to anyone who had gone to Germany, regardless of whether they had been compelled to go under the specific legislation establishing compulsory labour service. Sometimes French people talked of deportation meaning the drafting of labour to Germany. Here again words have changed their meaning. ‘Deportation’ is now mainly used to refer to people who were sent to concentration camps. After a court case in 1979, victims of STO were forbidden to refer to themselves as ‘deportees’, a term henceforth reserved for those who had been sent to Germany for ‘political or racial reasons’.

 

 

Oradour-sur-Glane

On June 10, 1944, four days after the Allied landings in Normandy, 120 soldiers of the Waffen-SS tank division ‘das Reich’ entered the market village of Oradour-sur-Glane near Limoges in Central France. They rounded up the population in the market-place. The men were herded into a barn, shot and set on fire. The women and children were crowded into the church where they were showered with bullets and also burnt. The SS then pillaged shops and houses and set light to numerous other buildings. Overall, 642 people (including 205 children) were massacred. Only 8 of those present escaped.

Compared to the Eastern Front there had been few massacres of civilians in France prior to this event. Groups of (mainly communist) hostages had been shot in late 1941, most notably in Châteaubriant. In 1944 shootings of civilians as reprisals for Resistance attacks became more frequent. Public hangings took place in Nîmes (Gard) in March and the mass shooting of 60 civilians was recorded in Ascq, near Lille, in April. The day before the Oradour massacre another unit of the ‘Das Reich’ division had committed atrocities in Tulle (Corrèze) hanging 99 men. In these cases the objective had been to terrorize local populations believed to be helping the Resistance. Oradour differed from these examples: the town had no record of Resistance activity, the nearest ‘Maquis’ unit being over 12 km away. The ‘Das Reich’ division, which during service on the Eastern Front had become accustomed to using brutality, probably chose to vent its cruelty on Oradour precisely because, unprotected by the ‘Maquis’, it offered an easy target.

Oradour immediately adopted huge symbolic importance. To preserve it in its ruined state it was accorded ‘martyred village’ status. The site would be used to remind future generations of Nazi barbarity. Equally important from a French perspective were the possibilities this symbol offered for cementing the unity of a divided nation. Since most of the French population had not been actively engaged politically during the war, this village’s random victimisation could be used to symbolise the innocent suffering of all French people at the hands of the occupier.

Unfortunately, Oradour ultimately became an instrument of division when 21 of the SS who participated in the massacre were brought before the courts. Their trial, which began in Bordeaux on 12 January 1953, was highly controversial because 14 of the defendants were Alsatians of whom all but one had been incorporated by force into the German army. Opinion in Alsace was horrified that they should be bought to trial. The residents of Central France were equally horrified that the Alsatians received lighter sentences than their fellow defendants and even more so when parliament, trying to pacify autonomist feelings in Alsace, subsequently amnestied them. Controversy also arose because no senior SS officers were in the dock. Either they had already died, were in hiding or like the ‘Das Reich’ commander Heinz Lammerding were protected by their association with American intelligence agencies. 

For further information on this question see Sarah Farmer, Martyred Village: Commemorating the 1944 Massacre at Oradour-sur-Glane,  University of California Press (Berkeley), 1999. 

 

Chronology of Memory

(the following Chronology is drawn from a number of sources. In particular Eric CONAN & Henry ROUSSO, Vichy, un passé qui ne passe pas, Gallimard 'Folio', 1996; Henry Rousso, Le syndrome de Vichy, Seuil, Paris, 1990; Serge Cordellier & Elisabeth Poisson (eds), L'Etat de la France, La découverte, Paris, annual publication; Robert GILDEA, France since 1945, OUP, Oxford, 1996)

The 1990's:

28 January 1990  Le monde reveals negationism in the writings of Bernard Notin, Lecturer at Lyon-III University. 

9 February 1990- Hans Modrow speaking on behalf of the German government recognises Germany's collective responsibility for the past

April 1990 Mikhail Gorbatchev recognises the responsibility of USSR for the Katyn massacre of April 1940

13 May 1990 Jewish organisations demonstrate in front of Bousquet's Paris residence

18 July 1990- Bernard Notin, Lecturer at Lyon-III University suspended for negationism

11 November 1990- Mitterrand sends the Prefect of the Vendée to lay a wreath on Pétain's grave for armistice day

19 November 1990 Decision of the court of appeal in Paris to try René Bousquet, former Vichy police chief

3 April 1991- decision to try Bousquet published

18 April 1991- Faurisson fined for negationism

1 May 1991- British modify their laws to allow the indictment of Nazi war criminals living in the UK

6 May 1991- Le Point publishes an article concerning the links between the cosmetics firm L'Oréal and the 1930's anti-Republican grouping the Cagoule. In particular the role of one of its directors Jacques Corrèze in the 'arynisation' of Jewish property during the occupation. The scandal continues until the death of Corrèze on 26 June 1991. Another revelation concerns the links between François Mitterrand and another former Cagoulard and founder of  L'Oréal Eugène Schuller. 

11 November 1991- Mitterrand sends the Prefect of the Vendée to lay a wreath on Pétain's grave for armistice day

16 July 1992- 50th anniversary of the Vél d'Hiv round-ups: debates about the difficulties of facing up to France's past history. Mitterrand attends a ceremony at which he is both booed and cheered. He had officially refused to accept the responsibility of the French state for crimes committed against the Jews. Justice Minister Robert Badinter did, however, accept the responsibility of the French state.

April 1992- the court of appeal in Paris dismissed Touvier case.

November 1992-The supreme court of appeal partially over-rules the Paris court of appeal's dismissal of the Touvier case

11 November 1992- Despite pressure from Jewish groups the Prefect of the Vendée travels to the Ile d'Yeu, where Pétain was buried to lay a wreath on Pétain's grave for armistice day.

3 February 1993- the Journal officiel publishes a decree declaring the 16 July (anniversary of the 'Vél d'Hiv' round-ups) as an official day of commemoration

6 February 1993- beginning of the scandal launched by Thierry Wolton on the theme of Jean Moulin as a Soviet agent

8 June 1993- assassination in Paris of former Vichy police chief René Bousquet by Christian Didier. Didier then calls a press conference before being arrested. Didier had already tried to kill Klaus Barbie in 1987. 

16 July 1993- for the first time this date (anniversary of the 'Vél d'Hiv' round-ups) is an official day of commemoration

11 November 1993- Responding to pressure from Jewish groups Mitterrand agrees not to lay a wreath on Pétain's grave for armistice day. The wreath is placed instead at Verdun.

17 March 1994- beginning of Touvier trial in Versailles

20 April 1994- the former Milicien Paul Touvier is sentenced to life imprisonment for complicity in crimes against humanity. He thus became the first Frenchman to be tried for such a crime.

June 1994- former Vichy administrator Maurice Papon loses the libel case he had brought against Gérard Boulanger who had a published a book highlighting Papon's role in the deportation of Jews from occupied Bordeaux.

6 June 1994- 50th anniversary of the Normandy landings

10 June 1994- 50th anniversary of the Oradour massacre

25 August 1994- 50th anniversary of Liberation of Paris

6 September 1994- publication of Pierre Péan's book 'Une jeunesse française, François Mitterrand, 1934-47'. The book reveals aspects of the President's past: his involvement in right wing groups in the 1930's and the important role he played in Vichy's prisoner of war ministry (for which he was rewarded with the 'Francisque').

12 September 1994- Mitterrand gives a television interview with regard to Péan's book. He doesn't deny Péan's findings but claimed that his conservative, provincial background was responsible for his involvement in right-wing groups.

16 July 1995- during the commemmorations of the Vél d'Hiv round-ups the new President, Jacques Chirac, recognises the role of the French state in anti-Semitic persecution: none of his predecessors had been prepared to do so.

26 April 1996- the philosopher Roger Garaudy, a former stalinist is indicted for negationism for his book 'Les mythes fondateurs de la politique israélienne'. Scandal arises when Abbé Pierre offers his support to his old friend Garaudy.

30 September 1997- during a ceremony at Drancy, bishops regret the passive attitude of the Church towards Vichy's anti-Semitic policy

April 1998- Maurice Papon convicted of complicity in crimes against Humanity for his role in the deportation of the Jews

 

 

 

 

BIBLIOGRAPHY OF MEMORY

 
 

Below you will find a broad bibliography of questions related to this topic, drawn from texts regularly cited with regard to this subject. It is by no means exhaustive. But it is hoped that those who access this page will co-operate in building on this information. If you know of any other works on subjects related to these themes, please let me know at S.K.Kitson@bham.ac.uk, so that I can update the list. Similarly if you notice any errors in the list below, please let me know.  When addressing titles to me it would be easier if you respected the format adopted here (ie Author's family name/ Author's Christian name/Title (in italics)/ Name of publisher/ Place of publication/Date of publication). Thanks for any help you can give. I am grateful to Hugo Frey for useful comments. 
 
 

CONAN (Eric) & ROUSSO (Henry), Vichy, un passé qui ne passe pas, Gallimard 'Folio', 1996 

FARMER, (Sarah) , Martyred Village: Commemorating the 1944 Massacre at Oradour-sur-Glane,  University of California Press Berkeley, 1999.

FLOOD (Christopher) & FREY (Hugo)   "History Writing: From the Annales to the Institut d'Histoire du Temps Présent", in Christopher Flood and Nick Hewlett (eds), Currents in Contemporary French Intellectual Life (Basingstoke:MacMillan, 2000), 56-75.

FLOOD (Christopher) & FREY (Hugo), "Extreme Right-Wing Reactions to Charles de Gaulle's Mémoires de guerre: A Scene from the French Civil War", South Central Review. The Journal of the South Central Modern Language Association, 17.4 (Winter 2000), 72-83.

FLOOD (Christopher) & FREY (Hugo) "The Vichy Syndrome Revisited", Contemporary French Civilization, 19.2 (1995), 231-249.

FREY (Hugo), "Representations of the Second World War: Ideological Currents in French History-Writing under the Fourth Republic", PhD (Surrey), 1998.

FREY (Hugo), "Rebuilding France: Gaullist Historiography, the Rise-Fall Myth and French Identity (1945-1958)", in Stefan Berger, Mark Donovan and Kevin Passmore (eds), Writing National Histories: Western Europe since 1800(London: Routledge, 1999), 205-216.

FREY (Hugo), "Historical Memory and the Boundaries of European Integration", in Noel Parker and William Armstrong (eds), Margins in European Integration (Basingstoke: MacMillan, 2000), 230-246.

GORDON, (Bertram M. ), "World War II France Half a Century After: In Historical Perspective,"  in Richard J. Golsan, ed., Fascism's Return: Scandal, Revision, and Ideology (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1997).

GORDON, (Bertram M. ), "Afterward: Who Are The Guilty and Should They Be Tried?" in Richard J. Golsan, ed., Memory, the Holocaust, and French Justice (Hanover, New Hampshire: University Press of New England, 1996), 179-198.

GORDON, (Bertram M. ), "The 'Vichy Syndrome' Problem in History," French Historical Studies, 19:2 (Fall 1995), 495-518.

GORDON, (Bertram M. ),  "Collaboration, Retribution, and Crimes against Humanity: the Touvier, Bousquet, and Papon Affairs," Contemporary French Civilization, 19:2 (Summer/Fall 1995), 250-274.

GUILLON (Jean-Marie) & LABORIE (Pierre), Mémoire et Histoire: la résistance, Privat, Toulouse, 1995 

ROUSSO (Henry), La Hantise du passé:entretien avec Philippe Pétit,  Paris, 1998

ROUSSO (Henry), Le syndrome de Vichy de 1944 à nos jours, Le Seuil, Paris, 2 édition, 1990 

ROUSSO (Henry),  Vichy : L'événement, la mémoire, l'histoire, Gallimard, Paris, 2001

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Vichy & Memory


Interview with Henry Rousso- Magazine Litteraire
http://www.magazine-litteraire.com/textes/dos_faut.htm

Page from Prospect Magazine, concerned with the process of memory- does make some reference to Vichy
http://www.prospect-magazine.co.uk/highlights/bad_memories/index.html

 

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Cultural representations of Vichy or the French Resistance


Synopsis - Star Trek- “The Killing Game”. One of the scenarios takes place
 in occupied France, with the Hirogen as Nazi SS Officers chasing down Captain Janeway, Seven of Nine, Tuvok and Torres as members of the French
Resistance.
http://www.mpdonaldson.com/JPaulBoehmer/html/synopsis.html

And There Was Light: The Autobiography of Jacques Lusseyran
http://pma-online.org/yellow/yellowtest.html

'History in Film' web site. Includes plot, outlines, worksheets and screen photos
http://www.hargray.com/~jwoggon/escape/plot.htm

[Star Trek-Voyager] "The Killing Game" Janeway and Seven of Nine are cast as members of the French Resistance when Hirogen invaders, as Nazi SS officers, hunt down Voyager's crew in elaborate, deadly holodeck games, in a special two-hour "Star Trek: Voyager"
 
http://trekweb.com/cool/Voyager/missions/186.html

Review of the game  101st : The Airborne Invasion of Normandy
http://wheat.pw.usda.gov/homepage/lalarka/reviews/101st.htm

GI Joe's Big Adventure : Contents- includes French Resister doll
http://www.whereisjoe.com/contents.htm

Biography of René Clément
http://chomsky.arts.adelaide.edu.au/person/DHart/Films/Gervaise.html

Un Heros très discret 1996. Director Jacques Audiard http://community.libertynet.org/~pfwc/97fest/events/hero.html

Background to the novel THE WOLF TICKET by Caro Clarke: Further reading and links on World War II and the Resistance
http://www.mallet.dircon.co.uk/resources.html

Derek de Lint's film The Free Frenchman
http://www.derekdelint.com/gallery/frenchman/

Festival of cinema on the French Resistance
http://minister.dva.gov.au/media/speeches/june97/french.htm

The film Lucie Aubrac
http://www.afc.gov.au/resources/online/sco/fjs/LUCIE.HTML

Film: Lucie Aubrac reviewed by Greg King
http://www.netau.com.au/gregking/f509luc.htm
http://www.alphalink.com.au/~pjh/f509luc.htm

Berlin Film Festival 1997: Lucie Aubrac  http://www.filmfestivals.com/berlin97/bfilmd7.htm

Page connected with Claude Chabrol's film 'L'oeil de Vichy'
http://www1.centrepompidou.fr/beware/fr_franc/vichy.html

Film: Plenty (1985)
http://res3.geocities.com/Hollywood/Hills/2844/msop.html

Allo 'Allo: appallingly unfunny British television comedy dealing with the French Resistance
http://www.coldcut.com/video/aa/characters.html

Star Trek Voyager - The Killing Game (contains portrayal of French Resistance)
http://209.204.217.215/startrek/storyvoy/season4/game.htm

Jean-Paul Sartre's Men Without Shadows directed by Jack O'Connor Set in 1944
http://www.yvonne-arnaud.co.uk/menwithout.htm

GI Joe's Big Adventure : French Resistance Fighter- advert for action-man style doll
http://www.whereisjoe.com/p811.htm

The French Resistance, named to recall the resistance to Nazi occupation, is the collection of pretty much all forces in France trying to overthrow the Cyberpapacy.
http://www.lpl.arizona.edu/~dddawson/Torg/NPCs/resistance.html

To Have and Have Not (1945)- Bogart and Bacall
http://www.service.com/PAW/morgue/movies/1995_Mar_1.stnbox.html

Miracle on the Rhine, a drama set in Strasbourg, France, along the banks of the Rhine River during World War II.
http://www.khcs.org/news0399/springplay.htm

Voyager Episode Guide #85 The Killing Game,
http://www.steve.simplenet.com/episode_guides/voy/voy_085.html

Sins of the Flesh (1990)
http://www.bdd.com/catalog/search/34534122.html

Top Secret! Comedy / Musical about an Elvis-like rock star who becomes embroiled in espionage work while touring East Germany with Nazis as bad guys and French Resisters as goodies
http://204.170.223.33/top.htm

The Meaning of Accentuation- rather silly page claiming that the gestapo invented the umlaut and the French Resistance invented the circumflex!
http://pharmdec.wustl.edu/juju/vek/accent.html

 To Have and Have Not, 1944. Directed by Howard Hawks Starring Humphrey Bogart, Walter Brennan, Lauren Bacall.
http://www.albany.edu/writers-inst/tohave.html

Star Trek: Voyager
 
http://pages.poly.edu/~scamac01/dmg/hw6/star.htm

Page concerning Chabrol's film 'une affaire de femmes'
http://194.133.60.72/pages/critique/AUAFFA.htm

The diplomat by Antje Starost, H.H. Grotjahn and M. Fluegg
http://www.agdok.de/germDoc/gD094.htm

To Have and Have Not- romantic adventure with Lauren Bacall and Humphrey Bogart.
http://sanfrancisco.sidewalk.com/link/32161

Bertolt Brecht and Lion Feuchtwanger collaboration together on play entitled "The Visions of Simone Machard", representing the Resistance
 
http://www.usc.edu/isd/locations/collections/fml/Brecht/BrechtFeuchtwanger.html

The 101st Airborne in Normandy game demo
http://rpgnews.pcgameworld.com/gamedemos/a/101firstairborneinnormandy/

Site dedicated to Louis Malle
http://www.afionline.org/fest/fest96/films/malle.html

Institute for European Studies-resource center materials- gives summaries of films such as Nous N'Irons Plus au Bois and Le dernier métro
http://www.einaudi.cornell.edu/Europe/center.html

Plans for a Sequel to Casablanca with Bruce Willis in the leading role
http://www.wichman.org/casablanca/index.html

Derek de Lint's movie The Free Frenchman (1989)
http://www.derekdelint.com/thefree_frenchman.html

"The Killing Game"
Janeway and Seven of Nine are cast as members of the French Resistance when Hirogen invaders, as Nazi SS officers, hunt down Voyager's crew in elaborate, deadly holodeck games, in a special two-hour 'Star Trek: Voyager'
http://www.psiphi.org/voy/ep/186.html

The Killing Game
http://rzaix340.rz.uni-leipzig.de/~soz95iqu/voyager/episodes/htmls/186.htm

A Man Escaped, 1956- directed by Robert Bresson
http://glyphs.com/words/film/95/escape.html

A Self-Made Hero (Un Héros Très Discret)
(Jacques Audiard, 1996- black comedy)
http://carbon.indstate.edu/film/hero.html

The immoral moment, (1962) starring Maurice Ronet, Francoise Brion, Nicole Berger, and directed by Jacques Doniol-Valcroze
http://tvguide.com/movies/mopic/data/1/1539.htm

 

 

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Vichy & French Justice

Vichy & French Justice
http://www.cyberj.com/dossiers/judeoscope/jud9207.htm

Académie Laurenhill- Letter addressed to Henry Rousso concerning the Papon affair
http://cemismontreal.qc.ca/magazine/vol1no1/editorial2.html

 

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Scandals/affairs linked with Vichy: negationism

 

biography of the holocaust negationnist, Paul Rassinier (be warned this biography is largely sympathetic to Rassinier)
http://codoh.com/thoughtcrimes/PORT1RAS.HTML

Jean-Marie Le Pen convicted again for reiterating his comment that Nazi gas chambers were "a detail of history."
http://www.wiesenthal.com/response/v19n1lepen.html

Big names in revisionism
http://www.ac.wwu.edu/~n9443139/Bigwigs.html

The Garaudy affair
http://www.codoh.com/inter/intchron2.html

 

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Scandals/affairs linked with Vichy: Aubrac affair

 

The Aubrac affair- the Libération debate
http://www.liberation.fr/aubrac/index.html

 

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Scandals/affairs linked with Vichy: Klaus Barbie

 

Klaus Barbie
http://www.boliviaweb.com/barbie.htm

 

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Scandals/affairs linked with Vichy: Touvier affair

 

Reflections on the Touvier affair
http://www.wulaw.wustl.edu/Faculty/Abstracts/lsw1.html

 Site on the Touvier affair
http://www.informinc.co.uk/LM/LM45/LM45_Vichy.html

Touvier affair
http://www.english.upenn.edu/~afilreis/Holocaust/touvier-obit.html

Novel based on the Touvier affair
http://www.bookpage.com/9606bp/readersguide/fiction/thestatement.html

 

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Scandals/affairs linked with Vichy: Papon affair

 

Site concerned with Papon affair
http://www.parismatch.com/news/papon/index.html

Site concerned with Papon affair
http://www.francofil.dk/papon.htm

Site concerned with Papon affair
http://www.matisson.com/affaire-papon/

Site concerned with Papon affair
http://alcor.concordia.ca/~dartnel/papon.html

Site concerned with Papon affair
http://www.ifta.co.il/Ambassade/Declarations/98041602.html

Site concerned with Papon affair
http://www.newstimes.com/archive97/jan2497/inf.htm

Site concerned with Papon affair
http://193.67.230.194/indruk/frameless/190000354.html

Site concerned with Papon affair
http://www.itn.co.uk/World/world1008/pics/pap.htm

Site concerned with Papon affair
http://www.ttc.org/archive/w971114a.htm

Page concerned with Maurice Papon
http://www.virtual.co.il/news/jta/nov97/05-papo.htm

Papon affair
http://comdex.thesource.net/files/librarywire/97wireheadlines/01_97/DN97_01_29/D...

Site concerned with Papon affair
http://webf01d7.ntx.net/papon/vieetcarriere2.htm

Opinion poll on the Papon affair
http://www.ifop.fr/ifop/actualit/opinionf/papon.htm

Papon trial
http://12.6.108.229/nyt/france/vichy/040398france-papon.html

Maurice Papon
http://www.fpa.org/new/papon.html

Charges against Papon affair
http://webf01d7.ntx.net/papon/synthaccusation4.htm

 

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Sites concerned with Vichy historians

 

Page devoted to Sarah Fishman describing her as one of America's rising stars in history
http://vi.uh.edu/PAGES/FAC/fishman.html

Page devoted to Debbie Lackerstein's research on Vichy
http://www.adfa.edu.au/ajax/staff/DL.html

Interviews with Daniel Bensaïd and Alexandre Adler concerning the role of historians as judges
http://www.lcr-rouge.org/presse49.html

Mary Hollis Holmes- historian with interest in Resistance
http://www.woodward.edu/faculty/us/holmes/csholmes.htm

Page devoted to work of the historian François DELPLA in particular 'Churchill et les Français'
http://www.amgot.org/delpla.htm

Page connected with Claude Singer's book 'Vichy, l'université et les Juifs'
http://www.cyberj.com/julesisaac/claude.htm

Page concerning conference in honour of Robert Paxton
http://www.columbia.edu/cu/record/23/04/16.html

Page devoted to Pierre Vidal-Naquet's text 'un Eichmann de papier'
http://www.anti-rev.org/textes/Vidal

 

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University courses dealing with the Vichy period

 

University of Birmingham: Vichy France & the Occupation: from 1940 to the present
http://artsweb.bham.ac.uk/vichy/option.htm

University of Birmingham: Aspects of Post-War French Cinema (Dr R F Cousins) http://artsweb.bham.ac.uk/FrenchModules/frM213.htm

Manchester University site-details of Vichy course
http://www.art.man.ac.uk/history/fc1250.htm

University of Sunderland: FRE218: Resistance and Collaboration in Occupied France
http://www.sunderland.ac.uk/~os0tmc/propag.htm

 

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Help with research

Polarbear Enterprises offer a W.W.II technical advice service and research service for Museums, Theatres, Film Companies and Historians.
http://polarbear-enterprises.co.uk/page7.html

 

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