Simon Kitson's

 

 

VICHY WEB

 

 

HISTORICAL REFERENCES FREQUENTLY OCCURRING IN VICHY OR RESISTANCE DOCUMENTS

 

The current page includes brief explanations of some of the allusions to historic events and themes which recurred in Vichy or Resistance documents. Obviously this list will always remain incomplete but I shall nevertheless be expanding it over time in the hope that it may provide some guidance to students of the period. 

 

Should you come across any other references which you feel should be included here please e-mail them to me on s.k.kitson@bham.ac.uk . It would be useful if you could give me an idea of the context in which the allusion was made. 

This page is currently divided into the following sections:

 

Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen

Dreyfus Affair

Intendants

Joan of Arc ('Jeanne d'Arc')

Marianne

Popular Front

Schlieffen Plan

Spanish Civil War

Verdun

 

The Vichy government in a wider historical context

As can be seen from the list of French regimes since 1789 Republican and Monarchical regimes competed for power throughout the 19th century. Since 1870, however, French politics have been dominated by republican regimes with only Vichy standing out as an overtly anti-democratic government. 
 

1789-92 constitutional monarchy: King’s powers limited by National Assembly

1792-1804 First Republic: elected National Assembly, but political power resides successively with the Committee of Public Safety (1793-95), the Directorate (1795-99) and the Consulate (1799-1804)

1804-14 First Empire: rule of Napoleon 1, legitimised by (rigged) plebisicites

1814-30 Restoration monarchy: Bourbon monarchy of Louis XVIII and Charles X, plus a parliament with limited powers

1830-48 Orleanist monarchy: contitutional monarchy with ministers responsible to a parliament elected by limited suffrage

1848-52 Second Republic: both National Assembly and President directly elected by universal adult male suffrage

1852-70 Second Empire: rule of Napoleon III, legitimised by plebiscites, with concessions to parliamentarianism from 1869

1870-1940 Third Republic: Chamber of Deputies elected by direct universal male suffrage, indirectly elected Senate, weak president and prime minister

1940-44 Vichy: personal rule of Marshal Philippe Pétain, constrained chiefly by the German Occupation of France

1944-46 Provisional post-war government: single-chamber Constituent Assemblies, elected by direct universal adult suffrage (including women voters)

1946-58 Fourth Republic: broadly comparable to Third, with weaker Senate and women’s suffrage

1958- the present   Fifth Republic: directly-elected president; prime minister and government responsible to National Assembly; Senate

 

Source: Andrew KNAPP and Vincent WRIGHT, The government and politics of France, Routledge, London, 4th edition, 2001, p 4

 

 

 

Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen

The declaration of the rights of man and the citizen was one of the key texts of the Revolutionary period. It put forward the idea that men should be equal before the law. It laid heavy emphasis on rights although it did also note that citizens had duties to the community. Vichy wrote its own alternative version of the declaration which appeared as a poster under the title 'Principes de la Communauté'. 

Déclaration des droits de l'Homme et du citoyen, 26 août 1789

Les représentants du peuple français, constitués en Assemblée nationale, considérant que l'ignorance, l'oubli ou le mépris des droits de l'homme sont les seules causes des malheurs publics et de la corruption des gouvernements, ont résolu d'exposer, dans une déclaration solennelle, les droits naturels, inaliénables et sacrés de l'homme, afin que cette déclaration, constamment présente à tous les membres du corps social, leur rappelle sans cesse leurs droits et leurs devoirs ; afin que les actes du pouvoir législatif et ceux du pouvoir exécutif, pouvant être à chaque instant comparés avec le but de toute institution politique, en soient plus respectés ; afin que les réclamations des citoyens, fondées désormais sur des principes simples et incontestables, tournent toujours au maintien de la Constitution et au bonheur de tous.

Article 1 - Les hommes naissent et demeurent libres et égaux en droits. Les distinctions sociales ne peuvent être fondées que sur l'utilité commune.

Article 2 - Le but de toute association politique est la conservation des droits naturels et imprescriptibles de l'homme. Ces droits sont la liberté, la propriété, la sûreté et la résistance à l'oppression.

Article 3 - Le principe de toute souveraineté réside essentiellement dans la Nation. Nul corps, nul individu ne peut exercer d'autorité qui n'en émane expressément.

Article 4 - La liberté consiste à pouvoir faire tout ce qui ne nuit pas à autrui : ainsi, l'exercice des droits naturels de chaque homme n'a de bornes que celles qui assurent aux autres membres de la société la jouissance de ces mêmes droits. Ces bornes ne peuvent être déterminées que par la loi.

Article 5 - La loi n'a le droit de défendre que les actions nuisibles à la société. Tout ce qui n'est pas défendu par la loi ne peut être empêché, et nul ne peut être contraint à faire ce qu'elle n'ordonne pas.

Article 6 - La loi est l'expression de la volonté générale. Tous les citoyens ont droit de concourir personnellement ou par leurs représentants à sa formation. Elle doit être la même pour tous, soit qu'elle protège, soit qu'elle punisse. Tous les citoyens, étant égaux à ces yeux, sont également admissibles à toutes dignités, places et emplois publics, selon leur capacité et sans autre distinction que celle de leurs vertus et de leurs talents.

Article 7 - Nul homme ne peut être accusé, arrêté ou détenu que dans les cas déterminés par la loi et selon les formes qu'elle a prescrites. Ceux qui sollicitent, expédient, exécutent ou font exécuter des ordres arbitraires doivent être punis ; mais tout citoyen appelé ou saisi en vertu de la loi doit obéir à l'instant ; il se rend coupable par la résistance.

Article 8 - La loi ne doit établir que des peines strictement et évidemment nécessaires, et nul ne peut être puni qu'en vertu d'une loi établie et promulguée antérieurement au délit, et légalement appliquée.

Article 9 - Tout homme étant présumé innocent jusqu'à ce qu'il ait été déclaré coupable, s'il est jugé indispensable de l'arrêter, toute rigueur qui ne serait pas nécessaire pour s'assurer de sa personne doit être sévèrement réprimée par la loi.

Article 10 - Nul ne doit être inquiété pour ses opinions, mêmes religieuses, pourvu que leur manifestation ne trouble pas l'ordre public établi par la loi.

Article 11 - La libre communication des pensées et des opinions est un des droits les plus précieux de l'homme ; tout citoyen peut donc parler, écrire, imprimer librement, sauf à répondre de l'abus de cette liberté dans les cas déterminés par la loi.

Article 12 - La garantie des droits de l'homme et du citoyen nécessite une force publique ; cette force est donc instituée pour l'avantage de tous, et non pour l'utilité particulière de ceux à qui elle est confiée.

Article 13 - Pour l'entretien de la force publique, et pour les dépenses d'administration, une contribution commune est indispensable ; elle doit être également répartie entre les citoyens, en raison de leurs facultés.

Article 14 - Les citoyens ont le droit de constater, par eux-mêmes ou par leurs représentants, la nécessité de la contribution publique, de la consentir librement, d'en suivre l'emploi, et d'en déterminer la quotité, l'assiette, le recouvrement et la durée.

Article 15 - La société a le droit de demander compte à tout agent public de son administration.

Article 16 - Toute société dans laquelle la garantie des droits n'est pas assurée ni la séparation des pouvoirs déterminée, n'a point de Constitution.

Article 17 - La propriété étant un droit inviolable et sacré, nul ne peut en être privé, si ce n'est lorsque la nécessité publique, légalement constatée, l'exige évidemment, et sous la condition d'une juste et préalable indemnité.

 

Dreyfus Affair

When in 1894 papers containing secret information were discovered in a wastebasket in the office of a German military attaché suspicion fell upon a French army captain Alfred Dreyfus from a  Jewish family.  It appears that an anti-Semitic prejudice lay behind this suspicion.  The Army authorities found Dreyfus guilty at a military tribunal. He was stripped of his rank and and sentenced to life imprisonment on the penal colony of Devil's island. Doubts began to emerge about the real guilt of Dreyfus and the President of the Republic pardoned him in 1899, despite attempts of the Army to cover up some irregularities in the procedures against Dreyfus. The affair divided French opinion and became a scandal of important proportions. Anti-Semites were pitted against those who favored tolerance. Republicans lined up against the anti-republicans. 

The Dreyfus affair underlined both that there was an indigenous anti-Semitic tradition in France and that anti-Republican currents still existed. When Vichy embarked on an anti-Republican and anti-Semitic crusade the Dreyfus affair again emerged as a point of reference. 

On the Dreyfus affair: 

http://www.wfu.edu/~sinclair/dreyfus.htm

http://www.encyclopedia.com/articles/03809.html

http://www.worldbook.com/fun/wbla/israel50/html/ziondrey.htm

 

 

Intendants

In the Spring of 1941 Vichy created the post of Intendant de Police as the Prefect's delegate for policing. This official was the most senior police official at the regional level. The name Intendant was taken from the senior officials who served prior to the French Revolution. Sharon Kettering, Professor of History Emerita at Montgomery college in Maryland, describes the pre-Revolutionary Intendants in the following way:

'royal commissioners whose authority was based on a commission from the king. Intendants were sent on missions to act on the king's behalf. They were usually sent on investigative or administrative missions to the provinces, where they worked with the governors; to the royal armies; and to ports with royal fleets, where they worked with the army or navy officers in command. After 1634, Intendants were sent to all the généralités, or tax districts, in France where they assumed new, more extensive financial responsibilities. Provincial, army, navy and financial Intendants became important permanent members of the new royal bureaucracy'. (Sharon KETTERING, French society, 1589-1715, Longman, London, 2001, p 146)

 

Joan of Arc ('Jeanne d'Arc')

 

Introduction

 

Drawn mainly from the nationalist right the Vichy regime celebrated Joan of Arc. Comparisons were made between Joan and Pétain. Joan was seen as a suitable symbol by Vichy because she was virtuous (notoriously a virgin), Catholic and anti-English.

But Vichy's use of Joan was contested by the Resistance. Lucie Aubrac recounts in her book 'Ils partiront dans l'ivresse'  that when she was teaching history lessons in the Southern zone of France she would get the pupils to draw up lists comparing Joan and Pétain with the express intention of showing them how ridiculous the comparisons were (eg one was fighting the occupier, the otehr was collaborating with them, one was young, the other old, one was a man, the other a woman, etc). Indeed the Resistance often used the image of Joan themselves precisely because she had fought an occupier rather than passively accepting their presence. 

 

Robert Gildea on the cult of Joan of Arc during the Vichy Years

The cult of Joan of Arc, adopted by the regime, was not unproblematic. After all, Joan had liberated French soil, while Vichy had entered upon a strategy of collaboration with Germany. One solution was to present Joan of Arc as the scourge of the English, not of foreigners in general. Admiral Darlan, vice-president of the council and foreign minister, meeting Hitler at Berchtesgaden on 11 May 1941 to further Franco-German collaboration, announced hopefully, ‘Today is the festival of Joan of Arc, who drove out the English’. Another solution was to draw a moral rather than a military lesson from the story, to see Joan above all as a model for moral rearmament and the enemy of the rottenness that had brought France to its knees in 1940. This was the style of official commemorations of Joan of Arc in unoccupied zone on 10 May 1942. The key slogans imparted to 2000 young people drawn up on the Place Bellecour at Lyon were ‘restoration’, ‘redemption’ and ‘resurrection’, in the sense of moral purification, not a call to arms. Pétain’s message, read at Limoges and Chambéry where new statues of Joan of Arc were unveiled, betrayed his concern about internal discord rather than an enthusiasm for Liberation. He urged that the people should ‘unite, discipline themselves, stop questioning their leaders’ and ‘close their ears to foreign propaganda’. (…)

The Vichy regime was unable to establish a monopoly of the cult of Joan of Arc. Opponents of the regime and of its policy of collaboration were not slow to see that the myth could serve their purposes just as well, if not better. The communists, seeking the widest possible national legitimation after June 1941, espoused the myth not only of the soldiers of the Year II but that of Joan of Arc as well. (…)

 At the Liberation, Joan of Arc was firmly located in the camp of the communists and Charles de Gaulle, who marched together in procession on her statue on 12 May 1945.

 Robert Gildea, The Past in French History, New Haven, Yale UP, 1994, pp 163-164

 

 

Colin JONES writing on the history of Joan of Arc:

 

 'The extraordinary career of Joan of Arc has made her one of the best known, but perhaps least understood, figures of French history. Canonized as recently as 1920, it was only in the 19th century that the 'Maid of Orléans' was adopted as a mascot of French right-wing nationalism. Earlier generations found her more difficult to fathom. 

One of the five children, Joan (Jeanne or Jehanne  in French) was born about 1412 to a moderately wealthy farmer in Domrémy in Lorraine. She was 13 when she started hearing the voices of Saints Michael, Catherine and Margaret, instructing her what to do. Her reputation preceded her in Chinon, in February 1429, where Charles VII was ruing the possible loss of his kingdom to the English. Joan identified Charles from a group of courtiers and convinced him of her divine mission to drive the English out of France. She persuaded him to give her command of an army to lift the English siege of Orléans, which she accomplished. The English were driven north of the Loire and their aura of invincibility was severely damaged. Joan was instrumental in bringing Charles to Reims. His coronation in this traditional place made him king 'by the grace of God'  and fortified his prestige. 

However, Joan's role at court became increasingly uncertain as those who urged negotiations with the English came to prevail over the pro-war group with which she was identified. Taken prisoner, she was handed over to the English by the Burgundians, who were still allies of the English. The English tried her as a witch in Rouen. Despite a heroic defence, she was sentenced at first to life imprisonment, then to be burned at the stake. The sentence was carried out in 1431, after Charles VII had failed to ransom her. 

Joan's habit of dressing in men's clothing, plus her claims to divine guidance, helped to condemn her as a heretic and sorcerer- charges that were supported by false evidence. Her death exemplified a growing intolerance within late-medieval Europe toward unconventional behaviour and religious views' (John ARDAGH & Colin JONES, Cultural Atlas of France, Facts on File, New York/Oxford, 1991, p 46)

 

Some Joan of Arc sites: 

http://members.aol.com/hywwebsite/private/joanofarc.html

http://www.stjoan-center.com/

http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/08409c.htm

http://perso.wanadoo.fr/musee.jeannedarc/indexanglais.htm

http://www.jeanne-darc.com/

http://www.geocities.com/CollegePark/Classroom/3062/jeannedarc.htm

http://dc.smu.edu/ijas/

 

 

 

Marianne

Marianne is the Republican symbol of Liberty. The image of a woman wearing a Phrygian cap (as worn by freed Greek and Roman slaves) first began to make its appearance in the eighteenth century at the time of the French Revolution. It is not clearly established who the particular Marianne depicted was but since the name Marie-Anne was very common in the 18th century she came to symbolise the people. In the Third Republic it became usual for town halls and many other public places to contain a bust of Marianne. Vichy was hostile to the kind of Liberty represented by Marianne and removed most of the busts replacing them with statues of Marshal Pétain. The Resistance kept the image of Marianne alive and the busts returned to the town halls in 1944 and the monuments celebrating the Liberation often feature Marianne breaking her chains. Marianne has continued to be a symbol of liberty since the war and actresses are regularly nominated by French mayors to represent Marianne in photos (Laetitia Casta is the current Marianne). 

Marianne

http://www.franceway.com/w3/Facts&Figures/politics/republiquesymbols.html

http://www.elysee.fr/ang/instit/symb6.htm

http://www.salon.com/people/feature/2000/02/19/mkarianne/

http://www.surfandbook.com/article.asp?ArticleID=277&ViewStyle=explorer

http://www.elysee.fr/instit/symb6.htm

http://www.go-fast.org/marianne/Index_Title.html

 

Popular Front

The Popular Front was France's left-wing government in the period 1936-38. Led alternately by Socialists and Radical Socialists the Popular Front relied on the parliamentary support of these two political currents but also upon that of the communists. Outside of parliament it drew on the support of trade unions and civil rights groups. 

The government is best remembered for its introduction of ambitious social legislation designed to reduce inequality, to improve working conditions and to open up greater leisure to the working class. In particular the government increased working class wages and reduced the working week. If these elements are what the Popular Front is best remembered for they were in fact secondary in its political mission. The raîson d'être of the Popular Front was the defence of democracy against the encroaching fascist threat. The advent of fascism in Italy and Germany had demonstrated the need for left parties to join forces to overpower this menace. Contemporary observers felt that the riots of 6 February 1934 demonstrated just how real the fascist threat in France was (even if many historians have since played this down). To combat fascism the government outlawed 'fascist' leagues and movements and was successful in dismantling the anti-Republican Cagoule organisation. At the same time this government invested hugely in a massive re-armament program designed to bring French defence up to the level of the Germans. The Popular Front was initially a great source of hope to left wing militants, although many became disillusioned once the government began to slow down its social reforms. 

On the right, however, there was great hostility. For Vichy the Popular Front was a bête noire.  There were many reasons they disliked it. The government of Léon Blum had been the first socialist government in French history. Since Blum was Jewish his presence at its head was a source of irritation to anti-Semites. The Popular Front's campaign against extreme-right anti-Republican groups targeted some of those who would support Vichy. This explains why the former Popular Front Interior Minister Marx Dormoy was assassinated: it was he who had ordered the arrest of members of the Cagoule. Under Vichy the Popular Front would be held partly responsible for the 1940 defeat- it was claimed that this government had insufficiently prepared France for the battle and that it had encouraged a climate where French people would be unwilling to sacrifice themselves and insisted too much upon their rights and not enough on their duties. Vichy decided to bring some of the Popular Front leaders (Blum, Daladier, etc) to trial. The trial was held in the town of Riom, near Vichy, between February and April 1942 but it was a complete farce. Not only were the defendants not allowed a lawyer but Pétain had publicly declared their guilt before the trial began. Nevertheless, the defendants successfully turned the tables on their accusers with Blum in particular demonstrating the role played by the military high command in the inter-war period (ie Pétain and Weygand) and thereby underlined its responsibility in the defeat. 

The French Popular Front

http://worldatwar.net/biography/b/blum/

http://www.black-schaffer.com/info/classes/hist53/paxton_chapter_12.html

http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/FRpopular.htm

http://members.aol.com/RevolutionTruth/popfront.htm

http://www.stabi.hs-bremerhaven.de/gbs2/whkmla/region/france/france192939.html

Des sites en langue française au sujet du Front Populaire

http://www.culture.fr/culture/actualites/celebrations2000/lblum.htm

http://perso.club-internet.fr/erra/montignon/france.htm

http://www.multimania.com/noritakazbrevet/histoire/front_populaire.htm

http://csf.colorado.edu/mirrors/marxists.org/archive/noneng/francais/trotsky/livres/ouvalafrance/ovlf4.htm

http://www.maitron.org/actu/Expo/expo4.htm

http://www.sinistra.net/lib/mat/bilan/fohe/fohehjebef.html

http://www.mairie-athis-mons.fr/histoire/front.htm

http://fr.encyclopedia.yahoo.com/articles/ni/ni_166_p0.html

http://www.hystoriae.com/france1939.html

http://www.langlab.wayne.edu/Gavroche/PopFront.html

http://www.sunderland.ac.uk/~os0tmc/fre320/front.htm

http://www.parti-socialiste.fr/synchronise.php3?location=http%3A//www.parti-socialiste.fr/ps_national/vie_ps/decouvrez/histoire/reperes/resistance.htm

http://www.ac-nancy-metz.fr/enseign/hist-geo/lp/pratique/weingaertner/demofr/chronofp.htm

 

Schlieffen Plan

The Schlieffen plan was the tactic employed by the Germans in the Western campaign in 1914. Part of the Schlieffen plan involved attacking France by passing through neutral Belgium. 

In their preparations for the Second World War the French high command were convinced that the Germans would again attack through Belgium. In this they were right except what they had not understood was that in 1940 the attack through Belgium would be merely a diversion with the main thrust of the German attack coming further south through the Ardennes forest. This miscalculation proved fatal. As the Germans attacked Belgium, the Allies poured their very best troops into Belgium. These soldiers were cut off in the North and had to be evacuated from Dunkirk (27 May- 4 June, 1940).  

The Schlieffen plan 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/education/gcsebitesize/history/britain_and_the_first_world_war/the_schlieffen_plan_and_belgium_rev.shtml

http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/FWWschlieffenP.htm

http://www.dhm.de/lemo/html/wk1/kriegsverlauf/schlieff/

http://www.worldwar1.com/tlwplans.htm

http://www.bbc.co.uk/scotland/revision/history/1890_1920/schlieffen_plan_belguim_rev.shtml?survey

http://www.pvhs.chico.k12.ca.us/~bsilva/projects/great_war/keating.htm

http://www.spwgame.com/tspoverview.htm

http://www.au.af.mil/au/aul/bibs/schli/schlieff.htm

http://www.schoolhistory.co.uk/gcselinks/wars/firstwwlinks/schlieffen_summary.html

http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/FWWschlieffen.htm

 

 

Spanish Civil War

In 1936 a left-wing Popular Front government was democratically elected in Spain. Units of the army revolted and the country erupted  into a civil war opposing the government forces against the nationalist right. The right would benefit from the material support of the fascist dictatorships- German planes were used to bomb Spanish cities (eg Guernica, 1937). The left did get some limited material support from the Soviet Union. In the West on the other hand there was great hesitation to come to support of the Spanish government. In France where a similar Popular Front style government had recently been elected the fear of a conservative backlash dissuaded French leaders from openly helping the Republican cause. Léon Blum did, however, organise some clandestine shipments of arms. The infighting between the various factions of the Republican forces (anarchists, socialists, communists) undermined their efforts and by 1939 the nationalists under General Franco had won the civil war. A flood of refugees made their way into France where many were interned by the Daladier government. 

Spanish Civil War: 

http://www.weisbord.org/Spain.htm

http://www.chisholm-poster.com/chisholm/sCivil/

http://history.acusd.edu/gen/WW2Timeline/Prelude07.html

http://www.geocities.com/CapitolHill/9820/

http://burn.ucsd.edu/scwtable.htm

http://www.cfcsc.dnd.ca/links/milhist/spciv.html

http://dwardmac.pitzer.edu/Anarchist_Archives/spancivwar/Spanishcivilwar.html

http://flag.blackened.net/revolt/spaindx.html

http://www.sispain.org/english/history/civil.html

http://www.english.upenn.edu/~afilreis/88/abe-brigade.html

http://www.skalman.nu/spanish/

http://www.weisbord.org/Spain.htm

http://history.acusd.edu/gen/WW2Timeline/spain-images.html

http://orpheus.ucsd.edu/speccoll/collects/southw.html

 

Des sites en langue française au sujet de la guerre civile espagnole

http://www.sispain.org/french/history/civil.html

http://www.patrimoine-photo.org/dhtml-fr/actu/expositions/espagne/

http://www.fluctuat.net/expos/chroniques/espagne.htm

http://www.photo-infos.com/actualite/guercivesp.htm

http://www.ihtp-cnrs.ens-cachan.fr/publications/cahier31/tonte_esp_ripa_31.html

http://www.cfcsc.dnd.ca/links/milhist/spcivf.html

http://www2.ac-lyon.fr/etab/lycees/lyc-42/jmonnet/francais/guerresp.html

http://www.multimania.com/chateaubriant/page157.html

 

Verdun

For the French two battles particularly symbolize the spirit of the First World War. 

The first was the First battle of the Marne (September 1914) which pushed back the German advance on Paris. The participation of the civilian population was celebrated through the image of the taxis which rushed troops to the front. 

The second was the battle of Verdun (February 1916-December 1916). This battle was significant on many levels. It was one of the fiercest, bloodiest and longest running battles in history. Huge losses were inflicted with 143,000 Germans and 163, 000 Frenchmen dying. For the French it became particularly symbolic. On the Allied side there were only French troops present at Verdun. The system of rotating troops at the front meant that most French troops served at least some time at Verdun. 

During the Vichy period Verdun became a particularly important image. It was at this battle that Pétain established his name. It was in great part due to his role as the victorious French general at this battle that he was promoted to Marshal in 1918 and celebrated to such an extent in the inter-war period. The expression 'vainqueur de Verdun' was frequently used to describe Pétain in the inter-war period and during the second world war. 

Battle of the Marne:

http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/FWWmarne.htm

http://www.geocities.com/Athens/Acropolis/2354/marne.html

http://british-forces.com/world_war1/Campaigns/marne1914.html

http://www.1914-1918.net/bat3.htm

http://ebooks.whsmithonline.co.uk/htmldata/ency.asp?mainpage=HTTP://EBOOKS.WHSMITHONLINE.CO.UK/ENCYCLOPEDIA/12/M0011212.HTM

http://www.fylde.demon.co.uk/charles1.htm

http://info.ox.ac.uk/departments/humanities/rose/battle.html

http://212.67.202.71/~johnwhal/timeline/1marne.htm

http://www.granada-learning.com/yitm/ww1/study_notes/over_by_christmas.html

http://rapidttp.com/milhist/1/d01julne.html

 

Battle of Verdun:

http://war1418.com/battleverdun/

http://campus.northpark.edu/history/WebChron/World/Verdun.html

http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/FWWverdun.htm

http://www.ifrance.com/letunnel/verdun-e.html

http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/special_report/1998/10/98/world_war_i/newsid_203000/203224.stm

http://home.wanadoo.nl/battleofverdun/

http://www.pbs.org/greatwar/interviews/audoin3.html

http://www.geocities.com/sander84/thebattle.html

http://www.multied.com/ww1/verdun.html

http://home.wanadoo.nl/~r.cossee/     (site in Dutch and English)

http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/history/A0850683.html

 

Des sites en langue française au sujet de Verdun:

http://www.ifrance.com/letunnel/verdun.html

http://fissiaux-adrien.nexen.net/jm/verdun/

http://www.geocities.com/Athens/2328/ba-fr.html

http://myweb.worldnet.net/~larane/histoire02210.htm

http://manu14-18.ifrance.com/manu14-18/LIENS/LA_BATVERDUN.HTM

http://www.verduntourisme.com/Histoire/1916.html

http://www.multimania.com/fafiabe/1418/verdun1.htm

 

 

 

 

 

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Second World War France by Themes

Historical reference The road to defeat The Occupiers & their policies
Vichy Administrations & Organisations Vichy Governments
Collaborators & Collaborationnists Vichy Police Deportation and Persecution

 

Propaganda Public Opinion

 

Everyday Life Cultural and Artistic Life Sport

 

Gender

 

The French Empire at war  

 

Resistance The Allies in France, The Allies and France Liberation 
Post-war Reconstruction Historiography and Memory

Page maintained by 

Simon Kitson 

French Studies, University of Birmingham,

Edgbaston, B15 2TT,

West Midlands, UK

s.k.kitson@bham.ac.uk

The French department at Birmingham University welcomes applications from students wishing to pursue Doctoral research in any aspect of Twentieth Century war & society in France and particularly those wishing to study the history or culture of France in the 1940s. Some funding may be available upon application.

In the 2001 Research Assessment Exercise the Department of French Studies at Birmingham University was one of only 6 French departments in the United Kingdom to achieve the maximum 5* grading (the others were Aberdeen, Cambridge, Manchester, Oxford, Royal Holloway)