Double objects

There is a very frequent construction in Greek (both written and spoken, but probably more frequent in the former), of what we may call a double object after the preposition με

Examples are:

(a)    με προορισμό τη Ζυρίχη
        με αφορμή ένα βιβλίο
        με αποτέλεσμα τον θάνατο του θύματος
        με στόχο την προώθηση της συνεργασίας
        με αιτία τη χρήση αλκοολούχων ποτών


the second object may also be a clause:

(b)   με αποτέλεσμα να διακοπεί ο διάλογος
        με σκοπό να κρύψουν την αλήθεια

and, given the many possibilities of word order in Greek, the clause may not begin with the να-form:

(c)    με αποτέλεσμα οι γηπεδούχοι να πετύχουν μια εύκολη νίκη
        με αποτέλεσμα όσοι προσλαμβάνονται να είναι εντελώς ανεκπαίδευτοι
(examples from the ILSP corpus)

In this construction, we can see an equative relationship, i.e. Η Ζυρίχη είναι ο προορισμός, ο θάνατος  ήταν το αποτέλεσμα, ο σκοπός είναι να κρύψουν την αλήθεια.

A similar double object construction is also possible with έχω (notice the similarity in meaning between έχω and με in these constructions - ενεργώ με σκοπό να κρύψω την αλήθεια  = ενεργώ έχοντας (σαν) σκοπό να κρύψω την αλήθεια)

(d1)    Είχε σκοπό τη δημιουργία πρωτότυπων προγραμμάτων
(d2)    ποτέ δεν είχε σκοπό να καταλήξει σε μια σοβαρή πολιτική συμφωνία

Can you think of any other words like αφορμή, σκοπός, αποτέλεσμα etc that can be used in constructions of this type? (Check here).   Notice that some Greek words can be used easily in all three categories above, while some like προορισμός are less likely to be used with a clause.


In principle, none of this works in English; in other words you cannot transfer this piece of Greek grammar into one corresponding English pattern.  There is no single pattern in English into which all these words fall.

Some possible solutions:

(i) use a verb in English to cover the meaning of the first object:  X resulted in Y, X aimed at doing Y, X intended (to do) Y

(ii) use a standard English equivalent:  flight number OA234 for Athens; caused by the consumption of alcohol; in an attempt to encourage cooperation, on the basis of my experience/based on my experience

(iii) if the second object is a clause in Greek, introduce the clause with that in English:  with the result that the home team had an easy victory (NOT *with the result the home team to have an easy victory), with the result that those who are given jobs (όσοι προσλαμβάνονται) have had absolutely no training.

(iv) think of the grammar required by the word you use to translate the first object in English: with the aim of +Ving (with the aim of doing/finding/creating, etc);

(v) try another way around the problem in English:  she wanted to create original programmes. (see d1)

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