|ο Τούρκος υπουργός εξωτερικών κ. Τζεμ||Turkish foreign minister Cem|
|ο πρώην μπιτλ Πολ Μακ Κάρτνεϋ||former Beatle Paul McCartney|
|ο πρώην πρόεδρος της Σερβίας κ. Μιλόσεβιτς||former Serbian president Milosevic|
|ο μουσικός Μστίσλαβ Ροστροπόβιτς||the musician Mstislav Rostropovitch|
|ο γερμανός φιλόσοφος Νίτσε||the German philosopher Nietzsche|
|η ηθοποιός Φέϋ Ντάναγουεϊ||the actress Fay Dunaway (or actor frequently nowadays)|
|η ελβετική πόλη Γενεύη||the Swiss city of Geneva|
|η ολλανδική πόλη Χάγη||the Dutch city of the Hague|
in some cases, we are dealing with conventional names that are not simply a matter of transliteration. Compare: Brussel/Bruxelles (Flemish/French), Brussels (English) Βρυξέλλες (Greek). In other cases, English may preserve the orthography of a name written in the Latin alphabet, as in the first example above, and which also accounts for Milosevic - which is the Serbian spelling (Milošević) with the diacritics removed - as opposed to Rostropovitch, despite the identical ch-sound at the end. English thus can have the advantage of preserving the visual appearance of the word, its spelling, but at the cost (to many English speakers) of not knowing how to pronounce the word. Greek on the other hand tends to preserve the phonology, at least as far as is consistent with the Greek system, but at the cost of not knowing how to write the word in the other language.
Some points to note:
(i) Names which were given katharevousa forms in Greek often show correspondences as if from ancient Greek. Thus, β was used to transliterate the b sound (or the letter b) into Greek in many place names. Hence Βαρκελώνη, Βέλγιο, Βουλγαρία, corresponding to Barcelona, Belgium, Bulgaria. Can you think of other examples?
(ii) The problematic relationship between spelling and sound in English has meant that transliterations into Greek sometimes try to reflect the sound, and sometimes the spelling. Also, distinctions such as that between the u in cup and the a in cap, or the sh of Shaw and the s of Saw disappear in transliteration, being rendered by α in the first case, and σ in the second. These have to be correctly restored when working back into English from Greek.