The production of this electronic book has been a co-operative venture. Many people and organisations have contributed their skills, knowledge, resources and materials.

Our sponsors

City Sites has been generously supported by the Arts and Humanities Research Board Institutional Fellowships scheme and the University of Birmingham and the University of Nottingham.

We would like to thank the Information Services division at the University of Birmingham and the Computer Aided Learning Group at the University of Nottingham for their support, with special thanks to Trevor Batchelor, Clive Field, Michelle Shoebridge, Karen Stanton and Barry Wood for their support in the realisation of this project.

Birmingham University Press has taken on the vital role of publishing and aiding dissemination of City Sites – we extend our thanks to the editorial board of the Press, Vicki Whittaker and Alec McAulay.


Reproduction of Materials

We would like to gratefully acknowledge the following institutions and individuals for permission to use their images on City Sites:

Photographs of New York and Chicago from the personal collections of Maria Balshaw, Anna Notaro and Douglas Tallack.

Aaron Douglas, Aspiration (1936). Oil on canvas, 152.4cm x 152.4. The Estate of Thurlow E. Tibbs Jr, copyright The Estate of Thurlow E. Tibbs Jr, 1936.

Artkraft Strauss Sign Corporation.

American Memory Collection, Library of Congress.

Archibald Motley Jr paintings, reproduced with permission of the Chicago Historical Society and Archie Motley, copyright Archie Motley.

Avery Library, Columbia University.

Chicago Historical Society.

Chicago Public Library

Charles White, ‘There Were No Crops This Year’ (1940); courtesy Heritage Gallery, Los Angeles, California.

Clip-art by Expert software 3000 Image PhotoGallery: Copyright 1996 Expert Software.

Jacob Riis photographs, reproduced with permission of the Museum of the City of New York.

‘Ladies‘ Luncheon at Delmonico’s’ (1902), reproduced with permission of the Museum of the City of New York.

Leon Barritt, 'The Commercial Vampire', reproduced with permission of Library of Congress.

Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division, Detroit Publishing Company Collection.

Library of Congress, Prints & Photographs Division, FSA-OWI Collection.

Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division, Gottscho-Schleisner Collection.

Lois Mailou Jones, The Ascent of Ethiopia (1932), Oil on canvas, 231/2 x 17 in. Milwaukee Art Museum, Purchase, African-American Art Acquisition Fund, matching funds from Suzanne and Richard Pieper, with additional support from Arthur and Nelle Sanders. Photo credit Larry Sanders.

Musei Civici Como (Italy).

New York Public Library.

Professor Steve Balkin, Maxwell Street Historic Preservation Coalition

Robert N. Dennis Collection of Stereoscopic Views, courtesy of the New York Public Library.

Sargent Claude Johnson, Lenox Avenue (1938), reproduced with permission of the Smithsonian American Art Museum, Transfer from the D.C. Public Library.

Tama Starr for reproduction of the Wrigley gum billboard photograph.

Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, New York Public Library.

Vivian G. Harsh Research Collection of Afro-American History and Literature, Chicago Public Library.

William Cronon for the reproduction of the ‘Great West as Chicago’s Corncob’.

Images for the White City essay, by Christopher Gair drawn from the following sources (all out of copyright):

‘Arabia, Midway Plaisance’; ‘Soudanese Hut’ from Hubert Howe Bancroft (1893), The Book of the Fair (Section One), Chicago and San Francisco, The Bancroft Company, 62; 82.

‘Bird’s Eye View of Peristyle’; ‘The Illuminations’ from F. Dundass Todd (1883), World’s Fair Through a Camera, St Louis, Woodward and Tiernan, 23; 26.

‘Donkeys and their Attendants in the Street of Cairo’ from Joseph and Caroline Kirkland (1894), The Story of Chicago, Vol. 2, Chicago, Dibble, 1894, 204.

‘The Court of Honour, Looking West Past Daniel French’s Colossal Statue Republic’ from Rossiter Johnson (1897-98), A history of the World’s Columbian exposition held in Chicago in 1893; by authority of the Board of directors, ed. by Rossiter Johnson, 486.

‘The Ole Kinzie House’, Inter Ocean Publishing Company (1893), Chicago’s First Half Century: The city as it was 50 years ago, and as it is today, 10.

‘Stock Yards’; ‘Street Scene’ from The Religious Herald (1893), Picturesque Chicago and Guide to the World’s Fair, Hartford, D.S. Moseley, 83; 251.

Advertisements taken from World’s Columbian Exposition Illustrated (April 1891), Vol. 1, No. 3, 30.

Every effort has been made to contact the copyright holders of images reproduced on City Sites. If any parties are aware of any issues relating to images presented please contact Maria Balshaw on

Thanks to Professor Scott Lucas and Dr Liam Kennedy for voiceovers.

Design, layout, general page content, overview, configuration details, feedback, New York and Chicago pages (including all images on these pages) and the City Sites logo copyright, 3Cities project group (Maria Balshaw, Liam Kennedy, Anna Notaro, Douglas Tallack), December 2000. Individual essay content copyright individual contributors, December 2000.

All rights reserved. Though City Sites is available as a freely accessible e-book all users should note that any reproduction, copy or transmission of this publication should not be made without written permission, and that all use of City Sites should be fully credited. Any persons who does any unauthorised act in relation to this publication may be liable to criminal prosecution and civil claims for damages.

Published by University of Birmingham Press, 2000. ISBN: 1-902459-09-1


Technical support


The City Sites electronic book has been designed and developed by Mike Beilby at the University of Birmingham, Information Services and more recently at CBLProjects Ltd.


The task of producing the electronic essays has been shared with Suzanne Wright, CAL Group, Academic Computing Services, University of Nottingham.

Maps and graphic sequences in the Lower East Side, Flatiron and Times Square essays have been designed by Colleen McCants, CAL Group, University of Nottingham.

The design of the opening page is based on the 3Cities project web-site produced and maintained at the University of Nottingham by John Walsh and Anna Notaro.



The navigation controls have been constructed using parts of the DynamicDuo Javascript library which is copyright Dan Steinman, 1999, is distributed under the terms of the GNU Library General Public License, and is available at the web site

Animations are presented using Flash version 4.0 plugins licensed by Macromedia Inc and distributed from their web site,

The Graphical Interchange Format is copyright Compuserve Inc. GIF is a service mark property of Compuserve Inc.

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